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ALL ABOUT NASYA (Nasal Drops) : AYURVEDA AND MODERN VIEW

ALL ABOUT NASYA (Nasal Drops):
  AYURVEDA AND MODERN VIEW

In Ayurveda, the word Nasya has been taken specifically to mention the root of administration of drugs by nose
ALL ABOUT NASYA (Nasal Drops) :  AYURVEDA AND MODERN VIEW


Author: Dr.Milind Kumavat
M.D.Ayurveda

ETYMOLOGY OF NASYA (Nasal Drops) :

The word Nasya is derived from ‘Nasa’ Dhatu. In Ayurvedic texts, Nasa Dhatu is used in the sense of nose.

DEFINITION OF NASYA:

In Ayurveda, the word Nasya has been taken specifically to mention the root of administration of drugs by nose

CLASSIFICATION OF NASYA:

Nasya is classified in various ways by different Acharyas. It is mainly classified according to its mode of action i.e. Shodhana, Shamana, etc and on the basis of various forms of drugs preparation utilized for the Nasyakarma e.g. Churna, Sneha, etc. According to various Acharyas, the classifications of Nasya are different


INDICATION OF NASYA:

Charaka has described the following general indications where Nasya therapy should be used.
Danta Stambha
Danta Shula (dental pain)
Danta Harsha (sensitivity)
Danta Chala (loose teeths)
Mukharoga
Upajihvika
Shirostambha
Shirahshula
Akshishula
Raji-Netra Roga
Timira
Galashundika
Galashaluka
Galaganda
Hanugraha etc.



CONTRA INDICATION OF NASYA:

Bhuktabhukta
Ajirna
Pita Sneha
Pita Madhya
 Pita Toya Snehadi
Patukamah Snatah Sirah Snatukamah Kshudarta etc.

COURSE OF NASYA:

According to Sushruta – 1,2,7,21 days
According to Bhoja -- 9 days
According to Vagbhatta -- 3,5,7,8 days

DOSE OF SNEHANA NASYA:

anti marks
A) Hina matra - 8 drops in each nostril
B) Madhyama matra-16 drops in each nostril (Shukti Pramana)
C) Uttam matra -32 drops in each nostril(Panishukti Pramana) (Su.Chi.40)

TIME FOR GIVING NASYA:

a) As per seasons;

Rutu -Nasya to be given

Grishma -Morning
Shita -Noon
Varsha -When day is clear
Sharada,Vasanta -Morning (Vagbhatta)
Shishira,Hemanta -Noon
Grishma,Varsha -Evening

b) As per Doshaja Vikara:

Doshaja Vikara Nasya to be given
Kaphaja Vikara - Morning
Pittaja Vikara -Noon
Vataja Viikara -Evening

BENEFITS OF SNEHANA NASYA:

Patient who regularly observes Nasya Karma does not become victim of diseases of eyes, ears and nose.
His hair and beard does not turn gray.
His hair doesn’t falls but instead grows fast.
Diseases like common cold, migraine, headache, facial paralysis etc. can be alleviated.
The joints, sinus, tendons and bones of his cranium acquire great strength.
His face becomes cheerful and plump and his voice becomes mallow, firm and stentorian.
Strength of all sense organs increases greatly.
There will be no sudden invasion of disease in the upper parts (Urdhwajatrugata) of the body.

He experiences the symptoms of old age later.
Disease of the supra clavicular region are cured in the person who practices Nasya.
He gets clarity of senses, good smell of mouth and the strength of jaw, teeth, arms, chest, etc.
He never suffers from the premature appearance of wrinkles, premature hair falling and Vyanga.

ACTION OF THE NASYA KARMA:

The mode of action of Nasya Karma can be explained as
follow:

Ayurvedic Point of View:

In Ayurvedic classics, the mode of action of Nasya Karma is explained indirectly.
According to Charaka Samhita, the drug administered through the nose enters in the Uttamanga and eliminates the morbid Doshas residing there.
In this context Sushruta has clarified that Shringataka marma is a Siramarma formed by the union of Siras (blood vessels) supplying to nose, ear, eye and tongue. Thus we can say that drug administered through Nasya may enter the above Sira and purifies them.Under the complications of Nasya Karma, Sushruta has mentioned that excessive eliminative errhine may cause Mastulunga Srava (flow of cerebrospinal fluid out to the nose). which suggest the direct relation of Nasal pathway to brain.
Indu, the commentator of Ashtanga Samgraha, opined that Shringataka is the inner side of middle part of head i.e. “Shiraso Antar Madhyam.”
Drug administered through nose -the doorway to Sheera.
Reaches the Shringataka marma of Head (Sheera), which is a Sira marma and formed by the Siras of nose, eyes, Kantha and Shrotra.
The drug spreads by the same route.
Scrapes the morbid Doshas of Urdhwajatru and extracts them from the Uttamanga.
All ancient Acharyas have said considered Nasa as the
gateway of head. It does not mean that any channel directly connects brain and nose, but it may be suggestive of any connection through blood vessels, lymphatic and nerves.

According To modern point of view:

There is no direct pharmacological correlation between nose and brain.However the olfactory area is the only place in the whole human body where there is direct contact between the outer surface and Central Nervous System. However the effect of drug on the brain, administered through the nasal pathway can be seen in followed examples. The nose is used as a route of administration for inhalation of anaesthetic drugs.
In modern medicine system, anterior pituitary hormones, in the form of nasal spray are being used since a long time. Nasal administration of an LRH antagonist for 3-6 months was found to be effective in inhibiting ovulation as a contraceptive measure (Berauist et al 1979).
Thus to understand the action of Nasya drug on central
nervous system it is necessary to know the probable pathways of action of Nasya dravya.
On the basis of fractional stage of Nasya Karma procedures, we can draw certain rational issues that are as follow:
(1) At the level of blood circulation
(2) At the level of lymphatic channels including C.S.F.
(3) At the level of neuroendocrinal and neurovascular
stimulation


(1) At the level of blood circulation:

Many drugs including hormones are administered through the nose for their effective therapeutic results. However, these drugs are believed to be rapidly absorbed through the mucous membrane and enter into the  general blood circulation of the body. Specific circulation may probably be involved for which, the posturing of the
patient may be important. This includes the entry of the drugs absorbed into the facial vein, through which the back flow of the blood occurs through the inferior ophthalmic vein and to the venous sinuses of the brain.

(2) At the level of lymphatic channels including C.S.F.:

The lipid soluble substances can easily and rapidly be
transported across the epithelial membrane e.g. Taila, Kshara, Ghrita, etc. These lipid soluble substances can also gain an assess into the lymphoid tissue. Thus, a rapid circulation through the lymphatic channels denotes a positive phenomenon. On the other hand, the extended arachnoid sheath from the brain to the
submucosal area of the nose is the other path for the absorption of drugs directly through the nose.

garcinia

(3) At the level of neuroendocrinal and neurovascularstimulation:

The stimulation of the olfactory system during the course of Nasya Karma is other possibility. The olfactory nerve functions by means of chemoreceptors. The chemical characteristic of the particle that has reached into the nose will be identified by the nerves, which carry the stimuli to the olfactory bulbs. Further, the stimuli will be carried to the high centres, probably involving the
hippocampus, limbic system, hypothalamus, etc. they’re the drug absorption deeper into the nasal drug delivery may influence certain enzymes and hormones in the body.

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